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An Erratum to this article was published on 28 September This article has been updated Abstract Males and females vary in many characteristics that typically underlie how well a host is able to fight infection, such as body-size, immune capacity, or energy availability. Although well studied in the context of sexual signalling, there is now growing recognition that these differences can influence aspects of pathogen evolution as well. Here we consider how co-infection between multiple pathogen strains is shaped by male-female differences. In natural populations, infections by more than one pathogen strain or species are believed to be a widespread occurrence. Using the water flea, Daphnia magna, we exposed genetically identical males and females to replicated bacterial co-infections.

As a result of Dan Lyons The same is true of race. Despite the Civil Rights Act ofalong along with other federal laws that clearly prohibit discrimination on the base of race, prominent golf courses have denied entry to African-Americans. Augusta National only admitted its first African-American member in —more than a quarter of a century after passage of the Civil Rights Act. Such exclusionary policies were unapologetically racist after that degrading.

All the rage this episode: How biological femininity could affect pain pathways Researchers are trying to understand the underlying mechanisms of pain all the rage males and females. Research Article: Colossal barocaloric effects in artificial crystals ; News and Views: Refrigeration based on plastic crystals Research Highlights How tumours-on-a-chip could customise cancer treatment, and an ancient monkey skeleton. Looking designed for pre podcasts? Head here designed for the Nature Podcast Archive.

He is also the author of Hit Makers and the congregation of the podcast Plain English. American colleges and universities at once enroll roughly six women designed for every four men. Last day, U. The statistics are amazing. But the imbalance reveals a genuine shift in how men participate in education, the belt-tightening exercise, and society.

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